Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). N ( Y N?) Citric acid is a that has the chemical formula C 6H 8O 7. It occurs naturally in. In, it is an intermediate in the, which occurs in the of all. More than a million tons of citric acid every year.
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It is used widely as an, as a. A citrate is a derivative of citric acid; that is, the,, and the found in solution. An example of the former, a salt is; an ester is. When part of a salt, the formula of the citrate ion is written as C 6H 5O 3− 7 or C 3H 5O(COO) 3− 3. Lemons, oranges, limes, and other citrus fruits possess high concentrations of citric acid Citric acid exists in greater than trace amounts in a variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably. And have particularly high concentrations of the acid; it can constitute as much as 8% of the dry weight of these fruits (about 47 in the juices ). The concentrations of citric acid in citrus fruits range from 0.005 for oranges and grapefruits to 0.30 mol/L in lemons and limes.
Within species, these values vary depending on the and the circumstances in which the fruit was grown. Industrial-scale citric acid production first began in 1890 based on the Italian industry, where the juice was treated with hydrated lime () to precipitate, which was isolated and converted back to the acid using diluted. In 1893, discovered could produce citric acid from sugar. However, microbial production of citric acid did not become industrially important until World War I disrupted Italian citrus exports.
In 1917, American food chemist discovered certain strains of the mold could be efficient citric acid producers, and the pharmaceutical company began industrial-level production using this technique two years later, followed by in 1929. In this production technique, which is still the major industrial route to citric acid used today, cultures of A. Niger are fed on a or -containing medium to produce citric acid. The source of sugar is, molasses, hydrolyzed or other inexpensive sugary solutions.
After the mold is filtered out of the resulting solution, citric acid is isolated by it with calcium hydroxide to yield calcium citrate salt, from which citric acid is regenerated by treatment with sulfuric acid, as in the direct extraction from citrus fruit juice. In 1977, a patent was granted to Lever Brothers for the chemical synthesis of citric acid starting either from aconitic or isocitrate/alloisocitrate calcium salts under high pressure conditions. This produced citric acid in near quantitative conversion under what appeared to be a reverse non-enzymatic.
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